Dulaglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes (REWIND): a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial

Hertzel C. Gerstein, Helen M. Colhoun, Gilles R. Dagenais, Rafael Diaz, Mark Lakshmanan, Prem Pais, Jeffrey Probstfield, Jeffrey S. Riesmeyer, Matthew C. Riddle, Lars Rydén, Denis Xavier, Charles Messan Atisso, Leanne Dyal, Stephanie Hall, Purnima Rao-Melacini, Gloria Wong, Alvaro Avezum, Jan Basile, Namsik Chung, Ignacio CongetWilliam C. Cushman, Edward Franek, Nicolae Hancu, Markolf Hanefeld, Shaun Holt, Petr Jansky, Matyas Keltai, Fernando Lanas, Lawrence A. Leiter, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Ernesto German Cardona Munoz, Valdis Pirags, Nana Pogosova, Peter J. Raubenheimer, Jonathan E. Shaw, Wayne H.H. Sheu, Theodora Temelkova-Kurktschiev, for the REWIND Investigators

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Abstract

Background: Three different glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists reduce cardiovascular outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk with high glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) concentrations. We assessed the effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide on major adverse cardiovascular events when added to the existing antihyperglycaemic regimens of individuals with type 2 diabetes with and without previous cardiovascular disease and a wide range of glycaemic control. Methods: This multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done at 371 sites in 24 countries. Men and women aged at least 50 years with type 2 diabetes who had either a previous cardiovascular event or cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned (1:1) to either weekly subcutaneous injection of dulaglutide (1·5 mg) or placebo. Randomisation was done by a computer-generated random code with stratification by site. All investigators and participants were masked to treatment assignment. Participants were followed up at least every 6 months for incident cardiovascular and other serious clinical outcomes. The primary outcome was the first occurrence of the composite endpoint of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes (including unknown causes), which was assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01394952. Findings: Between Aug 18, 2011, and Aug 14, 2013, 9901 participants (mean age 66·2 years [SD 6·5], median HbA1c 7·2% [IQR 6·6–8·1], 4589 [46·3%] women) were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive dulaglutide (n=4949) or placebo (n=4952). During a median follow-up of 5·4 years (IQR 5·1–5·9), the primary composite outcome occurred in 594 (12·0%) participants at an incidence rate of 2·4 per 100 person-years in the dulaglutide group and in 663 (13·4%) participants at an incidence rate of 2·7 per 100 person-years in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·88, 95% CI 0·79–0·99; p=0·026). All-cause mortality did not differ between groups (536 [10·8%] in the dulaglutide group vs 592 [12·0%] in the placebo group; HR 0·90, 95% CI 0·80–1·01; p=0·067). 2347 (47·4%) participants assigned to dulaglutide reported a gastrointestinal adverse event during follow-up compared with 1687 (34·1%) participants assigned to placebo (p<0·0001). Interpretation: Dulaglutide could be considered for the management of glycaemic control in middle-aged and older people with type 2 diabetes with either previous cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors. Funding: Eli Lilly and Company.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-130
Number of pages10
JournalThe Lancet
Volume394
Issue number10193
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jul 2019
Externally publishedYes

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