Dual-transmitter systems regulating arousal, attention, learning and memory

Sherie Ma, Balázs Hangya, Christopher S. Leonard, William Wisden, Andrew L. Gundlach

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


An array of neuromodulators, including monoamines and neuropeptides, regulate most behavioural and physiological traits. In the past decade, dramatic progress has been made in mapping neuromodulatory circuits, in analysing circuit dynamics, and interrogating circuit function using pharmacogenetic, optogenetic and imaging methods This review will focus on several distinct neural networks (acetylcholine/GABA/glutamate; histamine/GABA; orexin/glutamate; and relaxin-3/GABA) that originate from neural hubs that regulate wakefulness and related attentional and cognitive processes, and highlight approaches that have identified dual transmitter roles in these behavioural functions. Modulation of these different neural networks might be effective treatments of diseases related to arousal/sleep dysfunction and of cognitive dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-33
Number of pages13
JournalNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Acetylcholine
  • Arousal and attention
  • GABA
  • Glutamate
  • Histamine
  • Hypocretin
  • Learning and memory
  • Orexin
  • Relaxin-3

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