Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of the human calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) have previously failed to show efficacy in human osteoporosis clinical trials, but there is now significant interest in repurposing these drugs for hypocalcemic disorders and inflammatory lung diseases. However, little is known about how CaSR NAMs inhibit the response to endogenous activators. An improved understanding of CaSR negative allosteric modulation may afford the opportunity to develop therapeutically superior CaSR-targeting drugs. In an attempt to elucidate the mechanistic and structural basis of allosteric modulation mediated by the previously reported NAM, calhex231, we herein demonstrate that calhex231 actually potentiates or inhibits the activity of multiple CaSR agonists depending on whether it occupies one or both protomers in a CaSR dimer. These findings reveal a novel mechanism of mode-switching at a Class C G protein-coupled receptor that has implications for drug discovery and potential clinical utility.
- allosteric modulator
- calcium-sensing receptor