Dry fractionation approach in concentrating tocopherols and tocotrienols from palm fatty acid distillate: A green pretreatment process for vitamin E extraction

Phuong Anh Ngoc Doan, Tzyi Horng Tan, Lee Fong Siow, Beng Ti Tey, Eng Seng Chan, Teck Kim Tang, Nur Azwani Abdul Karim, Eng Tong Phuah, Yee Ying Lee

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) is a rich source of vitamin E. As compared to other vegetable oil, PFAD has higher tocotrienol (70–80%) over tocopherol content, which makes it a valuable source for vitamin E extraction. Current vitamin E extraction methods are not sustainable due to the intensive usage of chemical and high operational cost. Hence, the present study investigated for the first time using dry fractionation process as a green and economical pretreatment method for separating solid fraction (stearin) and liquid fraction (olein) in order to concentrate vitamin E from PFAD in olein fraction. We examined the dry fractionation conditions: crystallization ending temperature (36–44 °C), cooling rate (0.3 and 1.5°C min−1), stirring speed (20–125 rpm), and holding time (0–60 min) on the composition of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids as well as vitamin E content in liquid fraction (olein) and solid fraction (stearin) using gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. In most of these conditions, vitamin E was ultimately higher in olein fraction as compared to stearin fraction, which is correlated with the high degree of unsaturation. Under a cooling rate of 0.3°C min−1, 90 rpm stirring speed, and ending crystallization of 38 °C, the highest vitamin E rich olein fraction was attained with 1479 ± 10.51 ppm in 50 g olein fraction as compared to 1366 ± 7.94 ppm in 500 g of unfractionated PFAD.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)609-620
    Number of pages12
    JournalJournal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
    Volume98
    Issue number6
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021

    Keywords

    • Dry fractionation
    • Palm fatty acid distillate
    • Unsaturated and saturated fatty acid
    • Vitamin E

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