Simulation software packages have been developed to simulate traffic flow operations in emergency situations. However, it is not yet clear which adaptation effects in empirical longitudinal driving behavior can be observed. Furthermore, it is not yet clear to what extent these adaptation effects in emergency situations are represented in current car-following models. A driving simulator experiment was performed to induce longitudinal driving behavior under emergency conditions. Longitudinal driving behavior was measured through registered behavior in the driving simulator and analyzed with a multivariate analysis of variance. A new data analysis technique used so-called action points in psychospacing models. Acceleration and jumps in acceleration at action points were determined with multivariate regression analysis as well. The results show that substantial and significant adaptation effects in longitudinal driving behavior can be observed in an emergency situation. The results also show substantial differences in the position of action points in the speed-spacing plane in the psychospacing model between normal driving conditions and emergency conditions, as well as substantial differences in acceleration and jumps in acceleration at these action points.