Background: Coinciding with the release of the first Chinese domestic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Cecolin in 2019, and the substantial advancements in cervical cancer screening technology, we aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the combined strategies of cervical cancer screening programmes and universal vaccination of girls (aged 9–14 years) with Cecolin in China. Methods: We did a cost-effectiveness analysis in China, in which we developed a Markov model of cervical cancer to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of 61 intervention strategies, including a combination of various screening methods at different frequencies with and without vaccination, and also vaccination alone, from a health-care system perspective. We did univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of the model's findings. Findings: Compared with no intervention, various combined screening and vaccination strategies would incur an additional cost of US$6 157 000–22 146 000 and result in 691–970 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained in a designated cohort of 100 000 girls aged 9–14 years over a lifetime. With a willingness-to-pay threshold of three times the Chinese per-capita gross domestic product (GDP), careHPV screening (a rapid HPV test) once every 5 years with vaccination would be the most cost-effective strategy with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $21 799 per QALY compared with the lower-cost non-dominated strategy on the cost-effectiveness frontier, and the probability of it being cost-effective (44%) outperformed other strategies. Strategies that combined screening and vaccination would be more cost-effective than screening alone strategies when the vaccination cost was less than $50 for two doses, even with a lower willingness-to-pay of one times the per-capita GDP. Interpretation: careHPV screening once every 5 years with vaccination is the most cost-effective strategy for cervical cancer prevention in China. A reduction in the domestic HPV vaccine price is necessary to ascertain a good economic return for the future vaccination programme. The findings provide important evidence that informs health policies for cervical cancer prevention in China. Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China.