Chronic non‐specific low back pain (CLBP) is a common clinical condition that has impacts at both the individual and societal level. Pain intensity is a primary outcome used in clinical practice to quantify the severity of CLBP and the efficacy of its treatment, however, pain is a subjective experience that is impacted by a multitude of factors. Moreover, differences in effect sizes for pain intensity are not observed between common conservative treatments, such as spinal manipulative therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy, acupuncture and exercise training. As pain science evolves, the biopsychosocial model is gaining interest in its application for CLBP management. The aim of this paper is to discuss our current scientific understanding of pain and present why additional factors should be considered in conservative CLBP management. In addition to pain intensity, we recommend that clinicians should consider assessing the multidimensional nature of CLBP by including physical (disability, muscular strength and endurance, performance in activities of daily living and body composition), psychological (kinesiophobia, fear‐avoidance, pain catastrophizing, pain self‐efficacy, depression, anxiety and sleep quality), social (social functioning and work absenteeism) and health‐related quality of life measures, depending on what is deemed relevant for each individual. This review also provides practical recommendations to clinicians for the assessment of outcomes beyond pain intensity, including information on how large a change must be for it to be considered ‘real’ in an individual patient. This information can guide treatment selection when working with an individual with CLBP.
- manual therapy
- physical therapy
Tagliaferri, S., Miller, C. T., Owen, P. J., Mitchell, U. H., Brisby, H., Fitzgibbon, B.
, ... Belavy, D. L. (Accepted/In press). Domains of chronic low back pain and assessing treatment effectiveness: A clinical perspective
. Pain Practice