Do the experiential and deterrent effect operate differently across gender?

Stephanie Carmichael, Lynn Langton, Gretchen Pendell, John D. Reitzel, Alex R. Piquero

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Deterrence research showed that successful criminal episodes tended to erode the effect of sanction risks. In particular, experience with offending - especially offending without punishment - was believed to cause individuals to lower their unrealistically high expectations of sanction risk. At the same time, other research showed that deterrence could work for some individuals such that high perceptions of sanction certainty tended to inhibit future episodes of criminal activity. One unanswered question was the extent to which these 'experiential' and 'deterrent' effects operated differently across gender. Self-reported survey information on over 2,000 adolescents was employed to examine whether the experiential and deterrent effects varied across gender. Results indicated more similarities than differences linking deterrent and experiential effects to self-reported delinquency. Future research directions are outlined.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)267-276
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Criminal Justice
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2005
Externally publishedYes

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