This chapter examines quantitative and qualitative aspects of interactions between teachers and boys and girls in their classes. The different patterns of teacher interactions with their male and female students should be seen in parallel with the ways males and females regard themselves as learners of mathematics. The differences in boys' and girls' self ratings of mathematics ability are further confirmed by their different responses to items that tapped their attributions for success and failure in mathematics. The chapter surveys students' attitudes to mathematics, and particularly their attributions for success and failure in mathematics. A number of differences in students' perceptions and descriptions of their own mathematics ability were also found. Boys were more positive than girls about their mathematics ability and also showed more functional pattern of attribution for their success and failure in mathematics. Gender difference in relation to achievement and participation in mathematics continues to attract much attention, from research community as well as from government bodies.