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Streptomycetes have been the center of attraction within scientific community owing to their capability to produce various bioactive compounds, for instance, with different antimicrobial, anticancer, and antioxidant properties. The search for novel Streptomyces spp. from underexplored area such as mangrove environment has been gaining attention since these microorganisms could produce pharmaceutically important metabolites. The aim of this study is to discover the diversity of Streptomyces spp. from mangrove in Sarawak and their bioactive potentials — in relation to antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. A total of 88 Streptomyces isolates were successfully recovered from the mangrove soil in Kuching, state of Sarawak, Malaysia. Phylogenetic analysis of all the isolates and their closely related type strains using 16S rRNA gene sequences resulted in 7 major clades in the phylogenetic tree reconstructed based on neighbour-joining algorithm. Of the 88 isolates, 18 isolates could be considered as potentially novel species according to the 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analyses. Preliminary bioactivity screening conducted on the potential novel Streptomyces isolates revealed significant antioxidant activity and notable cytotoxic effect against tested colon cancer cell lines (HCT-116, HT-29, Caco-2, and SW480), with greater cytotoxicity towards SW480 and HT-29 cells. This study highlighted that the Sarawak mangrove environment is a rich reservoir containing streptomycetes that could produce novel secondary metabolites with antioxidant and cytotoxic activities.
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