In the brain, Serpinb6 was identified as an endogenous inhibitor of neuropsin, a member of the S1 (clan SA) family of serine proteases [J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 14562]. In the present study, we investigated the localization of Serpinb6 in the adult mouse brain using in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Region-specific patterns of expression were observed and two characteristics were recognized. First, the forebrain limbic area that expressed neuropsin mRNA contained Serpinb6 mRNA at moderate levels but not the lateral septum. On the other hand, Serpinb6 mRNA was also expressed moderately in the substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area system, whose fibers projected to the lateral septum. Additionally, Serpinb6 protein was detected in the lateral septum. Together, it was suggested that the expression of neuropsin in the brain is regulated entirely by Serpinb6. Second, Serpinb6 mRNA and the protein were strongly expressed in most somatic and visceral motoneurons among cranial nerve nuclei. This suggests that another serine protease is regulated by Serpinb6 in motoneurons and/or fibers.