The physiological importance of the insulin responsive glucose transporter GLUT4 in adipocytes and muscle in maintaining glucose homeostasis is well established. A key protein associated with this process is the aminopeptidase IRAP which co-localizes with GLUT4 in specialized vesicles, where it plays a tethering role. In this study, we investigated the distribution of both GLUT4 and IRAP in the kidney to gain insights into the potential roles of these proteins in this organ. Both IRAP and GLUT4 immunostaining was observed in the epithelial cells of the proximal and distal tubules and thick ascending limbs in the cortex, but very little overlap between GLUT4 and IRAP immunoreactivity was observed. GLUT4 staining was consistent with a vesicular localization, whereas IRAP staining was predominantly on the luminal surface. In the principal cells of the inner medulla collecting duct (IMCD), IRAP immunoreactivity was detected throughout the cell, with limited overlap with the vasopressin responsive water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP-2). AQP-2 levels were observed to be two-fold higher in IRAP knockout mice. Based on our results, we propose that GLUT4 plays a role in shunting glucose across epithelial cells. In the kidney cortex, IRAP, in concert with other peptidases, may be important in the generation of free amino acids for uptake, whereas in the principal cells of the inner medulla IRAP may play a localized role in the regulation of vasopressin bioactivity.