Actual dispersion of graphene oxide (GO) in cement paste was investigated by using both X-ray computed tomography and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that GO nanosheets are mainly agglomerated, as an individual phase, with platelet-like morphology and little GO being absorbed onto surfaces of cement particles and hydration products. By performing an electrical resistivity test, GO agglomerates are found to be more electrically insulative than cement paste. Therefore, it is not possible to develop self-sensing cement composites by incorporating GO directly without resolving its dispersion issue. However, GO agglomerates enhance the flexural strength of cement paste because of their special morphology and intrinsic strength. Results showed that the flexural strength of cement paste was increased by 83% with incorporation of 0.04% GO by weight of cement.
- Electrical resistivity
- Graphene oxide