Dispensing process, medication reconciliation, patient counseling, and medication adherence

Ema Paulino, Dixon Thomas, Shaun Wen Huey Lee, Jason C. Cooper

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (Book)Otherpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


The mission of pharmacy practice is to contribute to health improvement and to help patients with medical conditions to make the best use of their drugs. Within this mission, one of the core responsibilities of a pharmacist is to facilitate access to quality drugs that are the most effective, safe, and affordable for the patient. Dispensing is a fundamental service provided by pharmacists that aims to ensure patients will derive maximum clinical benefit from drugs while minimizing harm. The dispensing process is designed to include patient counseling on what to expect from a certain drug and to identify and prevent drug-related problems, especially medication errors (e.g., prescribing, dispensing, administration, system errors). In turn, medication reconciliation refers to the process of avoiding mismatches in a patient’s therapeutic regimen, usually occurring in transitions of care (e.g., between intensive care unit to inpatient ward or between hospital and community care), by reviewing the patient’s current medication regimen and comparing it with the regimen being considered for the new setting of care. The clinical approach to different groups of patients in diverse situations varies, as their needs and expectations affect the way they should be counseled and empowered. Optimal adherence to therapy by patients remains a challenge. Pharmacists are instrumental in improving patient medication adherence by implementing a range of pharmaceutical engagement strategies and services that should be tailored to each individual.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationClinical Pharmacy Education, Practice and Research
Subtitle of host publicationClinical Pharmacy, Drug Information, Pharmacovigilance, Pharmacoeconomics and Clinical Research
EditorsDixon Thomas
Place of PublicationAmsterdam Netherlands
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9780128142769
ISBN (Print)9780128142776
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Dispensing
  • Medication adherence
  • Medication reconciliation
  • Patient counseling

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