Ten patients suffering from vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) were assessed with a number of neuropsychological tests in order to investigate the qualitative nature and permanency of cognitive deficits associated with this disorder. Results suggested that VBI may produce a mild memory problem which has the characteristics of an axial amnesia. Qualitative features of this disorder are discussed. There appeared to be some correlation between severity of memory deficit and clinical neurological status. Results of follow-up testing suggested that regression of symptoms may lead to a slight improvement in the mental status of the patient.