Discrimination in hiring based on potential and realized fertility

evidence from a large-scale field experiment

Sascha O. Becker, Ana Fernandes, Doris Weichselbaumer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Due to conventional gender norms, women are more likely to be in charge of childcare than men. From an employer's perspective, in their fertile age they are also at “risk” of pregnancy. Both factors potentially affect hiring practices of firms. We conduct a large-scale correspondence test in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria, sending out approx. 9000 job applications, varying job candidate's personal characteristics such as marital status and age of children. We find evidence that, for part-time jobs, married women with older kids, who likely finished their childbearing cycle and have more projectable childcare chores than women with very young kids, are at a significant advantage vis-à-vis other groups of women. At the same time, married, but childless applicants, who have a higher likelihood to become pregnant, are at a disadvantage compared to single, but childless applicants to part-time jobs. Such effects are not present for full-time jobs presumably because, by applying to these in contrast to part-time jobs, women signal that they have arranged for external childcare.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)139-152
Number of pages14
JournalLabour Economics
Volume59
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Discrimination
  • Experimental economics
  • Fertility

Cite this

@article{b3ecbf3bd85f4735bcc26a7c7402a548,
title = "Discrimination in hiring based on potential and realized fertility: evidence from a large-scale field experiment",
abstract = "Due to conventional gender norms, women are more likely to be in charge of childcare than men. From an employer's perspective, in their fertile age they are also at “risk” of pregnancy. Both factors potentially affect hiring practices of firms. We conduct a large-scale correspondence test in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria, sending out approx. 9000 job applications, varying job candidate's personal characteristics such as marital status and age of children. We find evidence that, for part-time jobs, married women with older kids, who likely finished their childbearing cycle and have more projectable childcare chores than women with very young kids, are at a significant advantage vis-{\`a}-vis other groups of women. At the same time, married, but childless applicants, who have a higher likelihood to become pregnant, are at a disadvantage compared to single, but childless applicants to part-time jobs. Such effects are not present for full-time jobs presumably because, by applying to these in contrast to part-time jobs, women signal that they have arranged for external childcare.",
keywords = "Discrimination, Experimental economics, Fertility",
author = "Becker, {Sascha O.} and Ana Fernandes and Doris Weichselbaumer",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1016/j.labeco.2019.04.009",
language = "English",
volume = "59",
pages = "139--152",
journal = "Labour Economics",
issn = "0927-5371",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Discrimination in hiring based on potential and realized fertility : evidence from a large-scale field experiment. / Becker, Sascha O.; Fernandes, Ana; Weichselbaumer, Doris.

In: Labour Economics, Vol. 59, 08.2019, p. 139-152.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Discrimination in hiring based on potential and realized fertility

T2 - evidence from a large-scale field experiment

AU - Becker, Sascha O.

AU - Fernandes, Ana

AU - Weichselbaumer, Doris

PY - 2019/8

Y1 - 2019/8

N2 - Due to conventional gender norms, women are more likely to be in charge of childcare than men. From an employer's perspective, in their fertile age they are also at “risk” of pregnancy. Both factors potentially affect hiring practices of firms. We conduct a large-scale correspondence test in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria, sending out approx. 9000 job applications, varying job candidate's personal characteristics such as marital status and age of children. We find evidence that, for part-time jobs, married women with older kids, who likely finished their childbearing cycle and have more projectable childcare chores than women with very young kids, are at a significant advantage vis-à-vis other groups of women. At the same time, married, but childless applicants, who have a higher likelihood to become pregnant, are at a disadvantage compared to single, but childless applicants to part-time jobs. Such effects are not present for full-time jobs presumably because, by applying to these in contrast to part-time jobs, women signal that they have arranged for external childcare.

AB - Due to conventional gender norms, women are more likely to be in charge of childcare than men. From an employer's perspective, in their fertile age they are also at “risk” of pregnancy. Both factors potentially affect hiring practices of firms. We conduct a large-scale correspondence test in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria, sending out approx. 9000 job applications, varying job candidate's personal characteristics such as marital status and age of children. We find evidence that, for part-time jobs, married women with older kids, who likely finished their childbearing cycle and have more projectable childcare chores than women with very young kids, are at a significant advantage vis-à-vis other groups of women. At the same time, married, but childless applicants, who have a higher likelihood to become pregnant, are at a disadvantage compared to single, but childless applicants to part-time jobs. Such effects are not present for full-time jobs presumably because, by applying to these in contrast to part-time jobs, women signal that they have arranged for external childcare.

KW - Discrimination

KW - Experimental economics

KW - Fertility

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85065016574&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.labeco.2019.04.009

DO - 10.1016/j.labeco.2019.04.009

M3 - Article

VL - 59

SP - 139

EP - 152

JO - Labour Economics

JF - Labour Economics

SN - 0927-5371

ER -