The heterogeneous structures of the gas-solid flow in riser and downer reactors determine reactor performance but are not fully understood. This paper presents a numerical study of the hydrodynamic characteristics of cohesive particles in a riser and a downer. This is done by the combined approach of discrete element method (DEM) for particles and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for the gas phase. The numerical results show that this CFD-DEM model can reproduce different annular dense distributions of particles in the fully developed sections of the riser and downer. This realization requires suitable periodic boundary conditions applied to both the gas and solid phases in the flow direction as well as adequately fine meshes. The flow behaviors are analyzed in detail in terms of particle flow pattern, cluster behaviors, gas and solid velocities and forces acting on particles. Also, the dependence of the dense solid ring in the downer on some pertinent variables related to pipe geometries, material properties, and operational conditions is examined.
- Dense solid ring
- Heterogeneous structures