Fifteen endophytic isolates were recovered from the phytoremediator plant Phragmites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed they were primarily from the class Sordariomycetes and Dothiodiomycetes. Most of the endophytes in Sordariomycetes were from the orders Diaporthales (six isolates, e.g., Diaporthe, Phomopsis), Hypocreales (two isolates, e.g., Gliomastix, Trichoderma), and Xylariales (one isolate, e.g., Arthrinium), while members from Dothideomycetes were from the order Pleosporales (six isolates, e.g., Bipolaris, Curvularia, Microsphaeropsis, Saccharicola). The endophytes demonstrated varying responses to the metals (Al3+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, and Cd2+) and concentrations (10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg L−1) tested, with isolates of Dothideomycetes predominantly more tolerable to metals (80–97% tolerance) than Sordariomycetes (73–90% tolerance). Pb2+ was the least harmful towards the endophytes, while Al3+ appeared to be highly toxic with mean tolerable range (TR) of > 200 and 25–50 mg L−1, respectively. Endophytes thriving in toxic metals may further be applied for biocontrol, bioremediation, or growth-promoting purposes in metal-contaminated areas.
- Metal tolerance
- Phylogenetic analysis