Directing nucleation and growth kinetics in solution-processed hybrid perovskite thin-films

Alexander R. Pascoe, Qinying Gu, Mathias U. Rothmann, Wei Li, Yupeng Zhang, Andrew D. Scully, Xiongfeng Lin, Leone Spiccia, Udo Bach, Yi Bing Cheng

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62 Citations (Scopus)


A heightened understanding of nucleation and growth mechanisms is paramount if effective solution processing of organic-inorganic perovskite thin-films for optoelectronic applications is to be achieved. Many fabrication techniques have been utilized previously to develop high-performance perovskite layers but there remains an absence of a unifying model that describes accurately the formation of these materials from solution. The present study provides a thorough analysis of nucleation and growth kinetics underpinning the development of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite thin-films. Through precise control of the perovskite growth conditions the spacing of heterogeneous nucleation sites was varied successfully from several hundred nanometers to several hundred microns. The crystalline regions surrounding these nuclei were found to comprise clusters of highly-oriented crystal domains exceeding 100 μm in diameter. However, no beneficial correlation was found between the size of these well-oriented grain-clusters and the optoelectronic performance. The formation of the perovskite microstructure features characteristics of both classical and non-classical growth mechanisms. The insights into perovskite thin-film growth developed by the present study provide clear implications for the development of future hybrid perovskite microstructures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)617-628
Number of pages12
JournalScience China Materials
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2017


  • nucleation and growth
  • organic-inorganic perovskite
  • solar cells

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