Directed epistemic network analysis

Ariel Fogel, Zachari Swiecki, Cody Marquart, Zhiqiang Cai, Yeyu Wang, Jais Brohinsky, Amanda Siebert-Evenstone, Brendan Eagan, A. R. Ruis, David Williamson Shaffer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperResearchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Quantitative ethnographers across a range of domains study complex collaborative thinking (CCT): the processes by which members of a group or team develop shared understanding by making cognitive connections from the statements and actions of the group. CCT is difficult to model because the actions of group members are interdependent—the activity of any individual is influenced by the actions of other members of the group. Moreover, the actions of group members engaged in some collaborative tasks may need to follow a particular order. However, current techniques can account for either interdependence or order, but not both. In this paper, we present directed epistemic network analysis (dENA), an extension of epistemic network analysis (ENA), as a method that can simultaneously account for the interdependent and ordered aspects of CCT. To illustrate the method, we compare a qualitative analysis of two U.S. Navy commanders working in a simulation to ENA and dENA analyses of their performance. We find that by accounting for interdependence but not order, ENA was not able to model differences between the commanders seen in the qualitative analysis, but by accounting for both interdependence and order, dENA was able to do so.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Quantitative Ethnography
Subtitle of host publicationSecond International Conference, ICQE 2020 Malibu, CA, USA, February 1–3, 2021 Proceedings
EditorsAndrew R. Ruis, Seung B. Lee
Place of PublicationCham Switzerland
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9783030677886
ISBN (Print)9783030677879
Publication statusPublished - 2021
EventInternational Conference on Quantitative Ethnography 2020 - Malibu, United States of America
Duration: 1 Feb 20213 Feb 2021
Conference number: 2nd (Website) (Proceedings)

Publication series

NameCommunications in Computer and Information Science
PublisherSpringer Nature Switzerland
ISSN (Print)1865-0929
ISSN (Electronic)1865-0937


ConferenceInternational Conference on Quantitative Ethnography 2020
Abbreviated titleICQE 2020
Country/TerritoryUnited States of America
Internet address


  • Complex collaborative thinking
  • Directed epistemic network analysis (dENA)
  • Epistemic network analysis (ENA)

Cite this