Direct visualization of lithium via annular bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy: A review

Scott David Findlay, Rong Huang, Ryo Ishikawa, Naoya Shibata, Yuichi Ikuhara

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Annular bright field (ABF) scanning transmission electron microscopy has proven able to directly image lithium columns within crystalline environments, offering much insight into the structure and properties of lithium-ion battery materials. We summarize the image formation mechanisms underpinning ABF imaging, review the experimental application of this technique to imaging lithium in materials and overview the conditions that help maximize the visibility of lithium columns.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-14
Number of pages12
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 8 Feb 2017


  • Annular bright field
  • Atomic-resolution imaging
  • Detector geometry
  • Image simulation
  • Lithium
  • Scanning transmission electron microscopy

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