Direct DNA Analysis with Paper-Based Ion Concentration Polarization

Max M. Gong, Reza Nosrati, Maria C. San Gabriel, Armand Zini, David Sinton

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109 Citations (Scopus)


DNA analysis is essential for diagnosis and monitoring of many diseases. Conventional DNA testing is generally limited to the laboratory. Increasing access to relevant technologies can improve patient care and outcomes in both developed and developing regions. Here, we demonstrate direct DNA analysis in paper-based devices, uniquely enabled by ion concentration polarization at the interface of patterned nanoporous membranes in paper (paper-based ICP). Hepatitis B virus DNA targets in human serum are simultaneously preconcentrated, separated, and detected in a single 10 min operation. A limit of detection of 150 copies/mL is achieved without prior viral load amplification, sufficient for early diagnosis of hepatitis B. We clinically assess the DNA integrity of sperm cells in raw human semen samples. The percent DNA fragmentation results from the paper-based ICP devices strongly correlate (R2 = 0.98) with the sperm chromatin structure assay. In all cases, agreement was 100% with respect to the clinical decision. Paper-based ICP can provide inexpensive and accessible advanced molecular diagnostics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13913-13919
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number43
Publication statusPublished - 4 Nov 2015
Externally publishedYes

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