Diffuse Fibrosis Predicts Ventricular Arrhythmia in HCM Introduction Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We aimed to assess whether diffuse ventricular fibrosis on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging could be a surrogate marker for ventricular arrhythmias in patients with HCM. Methods A total of 100 patients with HCM (mean age 51 ± 13 years, septal wall thickness 20 ± 5 mm) underwent CMR with a 1.5 T scanner to determine the presence of ventricular late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) for focal fibrosis, and post-contrast T1 mapping for diffuse ventricular fibrosis. The presence of NSVT was determined by Holter monitoring and a subset of high risk patients received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Results NSVT was detected in 23 of 100 patients with HCM. Focal ventricular fibrosis (by LGE) was observed in 87%, with no significant difference between patients with (96%) or without NSVT (86%, P = 0.19). However, LGE mass was greater in patients with (16.5 ± 19.1 g) versus without NSVT (7.6 ± 10.2 g, P < 0.01). NSVT was associated with a significant reduction in ventricular T1 relaxation time (422 ± 54 milliseconds) versus patients without NSVT (512 ± 115 milliseconds; P < 0.001). There was significant reduction in ventricular T1 relaxation time in patients with (430 ± 48 milliseconds) versus without aborted SCD (495 ± 113 milliseconds; P = 0.01) over a mean follow-up of 40 ± 10 months. On multivariate analysis post-contrast ventricular T1 relaxation time and septal wall thickness were the only predictors of NSVT. Conclusion Post-contrast T1 relaxation time on CMR is associated with ventricular arrhythmias in patients with HCM. Diffuse ventricular fibrosis may be an important marker of arrhythmic risk in patients with HCM.
- cardiac magnetic resonance
- hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
- implantable cardioverter defibrillator
- myocardial fibrosis
- ventricular tachycardia