Differential susceptibility of cortical and sub-cortical inhibitory neurons and astrocytes in the long term following diffuse traumatic brain injury

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Abstract

Long-term diffuse traumatic brain injury (dTBI) causes neuronal hyperexcitation in supragranular layers in sensory cortex, likely through reduced inhibition. Other forms of TBI affect inhibitory interneurons in subcortical areas but it is unknown if this occurs in cortex, or in any brain area in dTBI. We investigated dTBI effects on inhibitory neurons and astrocytes in somatosensory and motor cortex, and hippocampus, 8 weeks post-TBI. Brains were labeled with antibodies against calbindin (CB), parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), and somatostatin (SOM) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker for astrogliosis during neurodegeneration. Despite persistent behavioral deficits in rotarod performance up to the time of brain extraction (TBI = 73.13 ± 5.23% mean ± SEM, Sham = 92.29 ± 5.56%, P < 0.01), motor cortex showed only a significant increase, in NPY neurons in supragranular layers (mean cells/mm2 ± SEM, Sham = 16 ± 0.971, TBI = 25 ± 1.51, P = 0.001). In somatosensory cortex, only CR+ neurons showed changes, being decreased in supragranular (TBI = 19 ± 1.18, Sham = 25 ± 1.10, P < 0.01) and increased in infragranular (TBI = 28 ± 1.35, Sham = 24 ± 1.07, P < 0.05) layers. Heterogeneous changes were seen in hippocampal staining: CB+ decreased in dentate gyrus (TBI = 2 ± 0.382, Sham = 4 ± 0.383, P < 0.01), PV+ increased in CA1 (TBI = 39 ± 1.26, Sham = 33 ± 1.69, P < 0.05) and CA2/3 (TBI = 26 ± 2.10, Sham = 20 ± 1.49, P < 0.05), and CR+ decreased in CA1 (TBI = 10 ± 1.02, Sham = 14 ± 1.14, P < 0.05). Astrogliosis significantly increased in corpus callosum (TBI = 6.7 ± 0.69, Sham = 2.5 ± 0.38; P = 0.007). While dTBI effects on inhibitory neurons appear region- and type-specific, a common feature in all cases of decrease was that changes occurred in dendrite targeting interneurons involved in neuronal integration.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3530-3560
Number of pages31
JournalJournal of Comparative Neurology
Volume524
Issue number17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2016

Keywords

  • diffuse TBI
  • inhibition
  • E:l ratio
  • cortex
  • hippocampus
  • interneurons
  • astrocytes. parvalbumin
  • calbindin
  • calretinin
  • neuropeptide Y
  • somatostatin
  • GFAP

Cite this

@article{c0c874f1891841ceb7b24e4f24f94827,
title = "Differential susceptibility of cortical and sub-cortical inhibitory neurons and astrocytes in the long term following diffuse traumatic brain injury",
abstract = "Long-term diffuse traumatic brain injury (dTBI) causes neuronal hyperexcitation in supragranular layers in sensory cortex, likely through reduced inhibition. Other forms of TBI affect inhibitory interneurons in subcortical areas but it is unknown if this occurs in cortex, or in any brain area in dTBI. We investigated dTBI effects on inhibitory neurons and astrocytes in somatosensory and motor cortex, and hippocampus, 8 weeks post-TBI. Brains were labeled with antibodies against calbindin (CB), parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), and somatostatin (SOM) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker for astrogliosis during neurodegeneration. Despite persistent behavioral deficits in rotarod performance up to the time of brain extraction (TBI = 73.13 ± 5.23{\%} mean ± SEM, Sham = 92.29 ± 5.56{\%}, P < 0.01), motor cortex showed only a significant increase, in NPY neurons in supragranular layers (mean cells/mm2 ± SEM, Sham = 16 ± 0.971, TBI = 25 ± 1.51, P = 0.001). In somatosensory cortex, only CR+ neurons showed changes, being decreased in supragranular (TBI = 19 ± 1.18, Sham = 25 ± 1.10, P < 0.01) and increased in infragranular (TBI = 28 ± 1.35, Sham = 24 ± 1.07, P < 0.05) layers. Heterogeneous changes were seen in hippocampal staining: CB+ decreased in dentate gyrus (TBI = 2 ± 0.382, Sham = 4 ± 0.383, P < 0.01), PV+ increased in CA1 (TBI = 39 ± 1.26, Sham = 33 ± 1.69, P < 0.05) and CA2/3 (TBI = 26 ± 2.10, Sham = 20 ± 1.49, P < 0.05), and CR+ decreased in CA1 (TBI = 10 ± 1.02, Sham = 14 ± 1.14, P < 0.05). Astrogliosis significantly increased in corpus callosum (TBI = 6.7 ± 0.69, Sham = 2.5 ± 0.38; P = 0.007). While dTBI effects on inhibitory neurons appear region- and type-specific, a common feature in all cases of decrease was that changes occurred in dendrite targeting interneurons involved in neuronal integration.",
keywords = "diffuse TBI, inhibition, E:l ratio, cortex, hippocampus, interneurons, astrocytes. parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, GFAP",
author = "Carron, {Simone F.} and Yan, {Edwin B.} and Alwis, {Dasuni S.} and Ramesh Rajan",
year = "2016",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1002/cne.24014",
language = "English",
volume = "524",
pages = "3530--3560",
journal = "Journal of Comparative Neurology",
issn = "0021-9967",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "17",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Differential susceptibility of cortical and sub-cortical inhibitory neurons and astrocytes in the long term following diffuse traumatic brain injury

AU - Carron, Simone F.

AU - Yan, Edwin B.

AU - Alwis, Dasuni S.

AU - Rajan, Ramesh

PY - 2016/12/1

Y1 - 2016/12/1

N2 - Long-term diffuse traumatic brain injury (dTBI) causes neuronal hyperexcitation in supragranular layers in sensory cortex, likely through reduced inhibition. Other forms of TBI affect inhibitory interneurons in subcortical areas but it is unknown if this occurs in cortex, or in any brain area in dTBI. We investigated dTBI effects on inhibitory neurons and astrocytes in somatosensory and motor cortex, and hippocampus, 8 weeks post-TBI. Brains were labeled with antibodies against calbindin (CB), parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), and somatostatin (SOM) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker for astrogliosis during neurodegeneration. Despite persistent behavioral deficits in rotarod performance up to the time of brain extraction (TBI = 73.13 ± 5.23% mean ± SEM, Sham = 92.29 ± 5.56%, P < 0.01), motor cortex showed only a significant increase, in NPY neurons in supragranular layers (mean cells/mm2 ± SEM, Sham = 16 ± 0.971, TBI = 25 ± 1.51, P = 0.001). In somatosensory cortex, only CR+ neurons showed changes, being decreased in supragranular (TBI = 19 ± 1.18, Sham = 25 ± 1.10, P < 0.01) and increased in infragranular (TBI = 28 ± 1.35, Sham = 24 ± 1.07, P < 0.05) layers. Heterogeneous changes were seen in hippocampal staining: CB+ decreased in dentate gyrus (TBI = 2 ± 0.382, Sham = 4 ± 0.383, P < 0.01), PV+ increased in CA1 (TBI = 39 ± 1.26, Sham = 33 ± 1.69, P < 0.05) and CA2/3 (TBI = 26 ± 2.10, Sham = 20 ± 1.49, P < 0.05), and CR+ decreased in CA1 (TBI = 10 ± 1.02, Sham = 14 ± 1.14, P < 0.05). Astrogliosis significantly increased in corpus callosum (TBI = 6.7 ± 0.69, Sham = 2.5 ± 0.38; P = 0.007). While dTBI effects on inhibitory neurons appear region- and type-specific, a common feature in all cases of decrease was that changes occurred in dendrite targeting interneurons involved in neuronal integration.

AB - Long-term diffuse traumatic brain injury (dTBI) causes neuronal hyperexcitation in supragranular layers in sensory cortex, likely through reduced inhibition. Other forms of TBI affect inhibitory interneurons in subcortical areas but it is unknown if this occurs in cortex, or in any brain area in dTBI. We investigated dTBI effects on inhibitory neurons and astrocytes in somatosensory and motor cortex, and hippocampus, 8 weeks post-TBI. Brains were labeled with antibodies against calbindin (CB), parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), and somatostatin (SOM) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker for astrogliosis during neurodegeneration. Despite persistent behavioral deficits in rotarod performance up to the time of brain extraction (TBI = 73.13 ± 5.23% mean ± SEM, Sham = 92.29 ± 5.56%, P < 0.01), motor cortex showed only a significant increase, in NPY neurons in supragranular layers (mean cells/mm2 ± SEM, Sham = 16 ± 0.971, TBI = 25 ± 1.51, P = 0.001). In somatosensory cortex, only CR+ neurons showed changes, being decreased in supragranular (TBI = 19 ± 1.18, Sham = 25 ± 1.10, P < 0.01) and increased in infragranular (TBI = 28 ± 1.35, Sham = 24 ± 1.07, P < 0.05) layers. Heterogeneous changes were seen in hippocampal staining: CB+ decreased in dentate gyrus (TBI = 2 ± 0.382, Sham = 4 ± 0.383, P < 0.01), PV+ increased in CA1 (TBI = 39 ± 1.26, Sham = 33 ± 1.69, P < 0.05) and CA2/3 (TBI = 26 ± 2.10, Sham = 20 ± 1.49, P < 0.05), and CR+ decreased in CA1 (TBI = 10 ± 1.02, Sham = 14 ± 1.14, P < 0.05). Astrogliosis significantly increased in corpus callosum (TBI = 6.7 ± 0.69, Sham = 2.5 ± 0.38; P = 0.007). While dTBI effects on inhibitory neurons appear region- and type-specific, a common feature in all cases of decrease was that changes occurred in dendrite targeting interneurons involved in neuronal integration.

KW - diffuse TBI

KW - inhibition

KW - E:l ratio

KW - cortex

KW - hippocampus

KW - interneurons

KW - astrocytes. parvalbumin

KW - calbindin

KW - calretinin

KW - neuropeptide Y

KW - somatostatin

KW - GFAP

UR - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27072754

U2 - 10.1002/cne.24014

DO - 10.1002/cne.24014

M3 - Article

VL - 524

SP - 3530

EP - 3560

JO - Journal of Comparative Neurology

JF - Journal of Comparative Neurology

SN - 0021-9967

IS - 17

ER -