Different faces of Nocardia infection in renal transplant recipients

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Aim Nocardia infections are an uncommon but important cause of morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients. The present study was carried out to determine the spectrum of Nocardia infections in a renal transplant centre in Australia. Methods A retrospective chart analysis of all renal transplants performed from 2008 to 2014 was conducted to identify cases of culture proven Nocardia infection. The clinical course for each patient with nocardiosis was examined. Results Four of the 543 renal transplants patients developed Nocardia infection within 2 to 13 months post-transplant. All patients were judged at high immunological risk of rejection pre-transplant and had received multiple sessions of plasmaphoeresis and intravenous immunoglobulin before the onset of the infection. Two patients presented with pulmonary nocardiosis and two with cerebral abscesses. One case of pulmonary nocardiosis was complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis and the other by cytomegalovirus pneumonia. All four patients improved with combination antibiotic therapy guided by drug susceptibility testing. At the time of Nocardia infection all four patients were receiving primary prophylaxis with trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) 160/800 mg, twice weekly. Conclusion Plasmaphoeresis may be risk factor for Nocardia infection and need further study. Nocardia infection may coexist with other opportunistic infections. Identification of the Nocardia species and drug susceptibility testing is essential in guiding the effective management of patients with Nocardia. Intermittent TMP-SMX (one double strength tablet, twice a week) appears insufficient to prevent Nocardia infection in renal transplant recipients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)254-260
Number of pages7
JournalNephrology
Volume21
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2016

Keywords

  • immunosuppression
  • infections
  • Nocardia
  • plasmaphoeresis
  • renal transplant

Cite this

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title = "Different faces of Nocardia infection in renal transplant recipients",
abstract = "Aim Nocardia infections are an uncommon but important cause of morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients. The present study was carried out to determine the spectrum of Nocardia infections in a renal transplant centre in Australia. Methods A retrospective chart analysis of all renal transplants performed from 2008 to 2014 was conducted to identify cases of culture proven Nocardia infection. The clinical course for each patient with nocardiosis was examined. Results Four of the 543 renal transplants patients developed Nocardia infection within 2 to 13 months post-transplant. All patients were judged at high immunological risk of rejection pre-transplant and had received multiple sessions of plasmaphoeresis and intravenous immunoglobulin before the onset of the infection. Two patients presented with pulmonary nocardiosis and two with cerebral abscesses. One case of pulmonary nocardiosis was complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis and the other by cytomegalovirus pneumonia. All four patients improved with combination antibiotic therapy guided by drug susceptibility testing. At the time of Nocardia infection all four patients were receiving primary prophylaxis with trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) 160/800 mg, twice weekly. Conclusion Plasmaphoeresis may be risk factor for Nocardia infection and need further study. Nocardia infection may coexist with other opportunistic infections. Identification of the Nocardia species and drug susceptibility testing is essential in guiding the effective management of patients with Nocardia. Intermittent TMP-SMX (one double strength tablet, twice a week) appears insufficient to prevent Nocardia infection in renal transplant recipients.",
keywords = "immunosuppression, infections, Nocardia, plasmaphoeresis, renal transplant",
author = "Shailendra Shrestha and John Kanellis and Tony Korman and Polkinghorne, {Kevan R} and Fiona Brown and Ming Yii and Kerr, {Peter G} and William Mulley",
year = "2016",
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doi = "10.1111/nep.12585",
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Different faces of Nocardia infection in renal transplant recipients. / Shrestha, Shailendra; Kanellis, John; Korman, Tony; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Brown, Fiona; Yii, Ming; Kerr, Peter G; Mulley, William.

In: Nephrology, Vol. 21, No. 3, 01.03.2016, p. 254-260.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Different faces of Nocardia infection in renal transplant recipients

AU - Shrestha, Shailendra

AU - Kanellis, John

AU - Korman, Tony

AU - Polkinghorne, Kevan R

AU - Brown, Fiona

AU - Yii, Ming

AU - Kerr, Peter G

AU - Mulley, William

PY - 2016/3/1

Y1 - 2016/3/1

N2 - Aim Nocardia infections are an uncommon but important cause of morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients. The present study was carried out to determine the spectrum of Nocardia infections in a renal transplant centre in Australia. Methods A retrospective chart analysis of all renal transplants performed from 2008 to 2014 was conducted to identify cases of culture proven Nocardia infection. The clinical course for each patient with nocardiosis was examined. Results Four of the 543 renal transplants patients developed Nocardia infection within 2 to 13 months post-transplant. All patients were judged at high immunological risk of rejection pre-transplant and had received multiple sessions of plasmaphoeresis and intravenous immunoglobulin before the onset of the infection. Two patients presented with pulmonary nocardiosis and two with cerebral abscesses. One case of pulmonary nocardiosis was complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis and the other by cytomegalovirus pneumonia. All four patients improved with combination antibiotic therapy guided by drug susceptibility testing. At the time of Nocardia infection all four patients were receiving primary prophylaxis with trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) 160/800 mg, twice weekly. Conclusion Plasmaphoeresis may be risk factor for Nocardia infection and need further study. Nocardia infection may coexist with other opportunistic infections. Identification of the Nocardia species and drug susceptibility testing is essential in guiding the effective management of patients with Nocardia. Intermittent TMP-SMX (one double strength tablet, twice a week) appears insufficient to prevent Nocardia infection in renal transplant recipients.

AB - Aim Nocardia infections are an uncommon but important cause of morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients. The present study was carried out to determine the spectrum of Nocardia infections in a renal transplant centre in Australia. Methods A retrospective chart analysis of all renal transplants performed from 2008 to 2014 was conducted to identify cases of culture proven Nocardia infection. The clinical course for each patient with nocardiosis was examined. Results Four of the 543 renal transplants patients developed Nocardia infection within 2 to 13 months post-transplant. All patients were judged at high immunological risk of rejection pre-transplant and had received multiple sessions of plasmaphoeresis and intravenous immunoglobulin before the onset of the infection. Two patients presented with pulmonary nocardiosis and two with cerebral abscesses. One case of pulmonary nocardiosis was complicated by pulmonary aspergillosis and the other by cytomegalovirus pneumonia. All four patients improved with combination antibiotic therapy guided by drug susceptibility testing. At the time of Nocardia infection all four patients were receiving primary prophylaxis with trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) 160/800 mg, twice weekly. Conclusion Plasmaphoeresis may be risk factor for Nocardia infection and need further study. Nocardia infection may coexist with other opportunistic infections. Identification of the Nocardia species and drug susceptibility testing is essential in guiding the effective management of patients with Nocardia. Intermittent TMP-SMX (one double strength tablet, twice a week) appears insufficient to prevent Nocardia infection in renal transplant recipients.

KW - immunosuppression

KW - infections

KW - Nocardia

KW - plasmaphoeresis

KW - renal transplant

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U2 - 10.1111/nep.12585

DO - 10.1111/nep.12585

M3 - Article

VL - 21

SP - 254

EP - 260

JO - Nephrology

JF - Nephrology

SN - 1320-5358

IS - 3

ER -