Different carrots and different sticks: do we reward and punish differently than we approve and disapprove?

Andreas Leibbrandt, Raul Lopez-Perez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


This paper reports lab data from four games in order to analyze and compare the motivations behind monetary punishment and reward and their non-monetary counterparts, disapproval and approval, an important question given that both types of punishment/rewards affect cooperation and norm compliance. The results in our games support the hypothesis that a motivation akin to reciprocity plays the key role for approval and disapproval whereas payoff comparisons play the key role for monetary rewards and punishment.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95 - 118
Number of pages24
JournalTheory and Decision
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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