The aim of this study was to investigate effects of dietary supplementation with fat or sugar on body composition (BC) and insulin sensitivity (IS) in maturing pigs. Fifty newborn pigs randomized to a control diet or 18 saturated fat (SF), 18 monounsaturated fat (MUF), 18 mixed fat (MF), or 50 sucrose (SUC), from 1 to 16 weeks of age. Outcomes included weight gain, BC (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, DXA), IS (fasting insulin and hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps), fasting Non-Esterified Fatty Acid (NEFA) concentrations, and mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and IS in skeletal muscle (SM), subcutaneous (SAT), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). In vitro studies examined direct effects of fatty acids on insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) mRNA in C2C12 myotubes. While SUC-fed pigs gained most weight (due to larger quantities consumed; P <0.01), those fed fat-enriched diets exhibited more weight gain per unit energy intake (P <0.001). Total (P = 0.03) and visceral (P = 0.04) adiposity were greatest in MUF-fed pigs. Whole-body IS was decreased in those fed fat (P = 0.04), with fasting insulin increased in MUF-fed pigs (P = 0.03). SM IGFBP2 mRNA was increased in MUF-fed pigs (P = 0.009) and, in all animals, SM IGFBP2 mRNA correlated with total (P = 0.007) and visceral (P = 0.001) fat, fasting insulin (r = 0.321; P = 0.03) and change in NEFA concentrations (r = 0.285; P = 0.047). Furthermore, exposure of in vitro cultured myotubes to MUF, but not SF, reduced IGFBP2 mRNA suggesting a converse direct effect. In conclusion, diets high in fat, but not sugar, promote visceral adiposity and insulin resistance in maturing pigs, with evidence that fatty acids have direct and indirect effects on IGFBP2 mRNA expression in muscle.