Dietary intake and hospitalisation due to diabetic ketoacidosis and hypoglycaemia in individuals with type 1 diabetes

Aila J. Ahola, Valma Harjutsalo, Merlin C. Thomas, Carol Forsblom, Per Henrik Groop

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We investigated the association between diet and risk of hospitalisation for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes. Food records were used to assess dietary intake. Data on DKA and hypoglycaemia hospitalisations, within two years of dietary assessments, were obtained from registries. Analyses were conducted with and without macronutrient substitution. Data were available from 1391 participants, 28 (2.0%) and 55 (4.0%) of whom were hospitalised due to DKA or hypoglycaemia, respectively. In the adjusted model, self-reported alcohol intake was associated with increased (per 10 g: B = 1.463, 95% CI = 1.114–1.922, p = 0.006; per E%: B = 1.113, 95% CI = 1.027–1.206, p = 0.009), and fibre intake with reduced (per g/MJ: B = 0.934, 95% CI = 0.878–0.995, p = 0.034) risk of DKA hospitalisation. Substituting carbohydrates for fats was associated with increased risk for hypoglycaemia hospitalisation (B = 1.361, 95% CI = 1.031–1.795, p = 0.029), while substituting alcohol for carbohydrates (B = 1.644, 95% CI = 1.006–2.685, p = 0.047) or proteins (B = 2.278, 95% CI = 1.038–4.999, p = 0.040) increased the risk for DKA hospitalisation. In conclusion, refraining from alcohol intake is a preventable risk factor for DKA, while higher fibre intake seems rather protective. Increasing carbohydrate intake while decreasing that of fats, is associated with higher hypoglycaemia risk. Whether this is a cause or effect of hypoglycaemia remains to be established.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1638
Number of pages7
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

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