Dietary essential amino acid restriction promotes hyperdipsia via hepatic fgf21

Patricia M. Rusu, Andrea Y. Chan, Mathias Heikenwalder, Oliver J. Müller, Adam J. Rose

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Prior studies have reported that dietary protein dilution (DPD) or amino acid dilution promotes heightened water intake (i.e., hyperdipsia) however, the exact dietary requirements and the mechanism responsible for this effect are still unknown. Here, we show that dietary amino acid (AA) restriction is sufficient and required to drive hyperdipsia during DPD. Our studies demonstrate that particularly dietary essential AA (EAA) restriction, but not non-EAA, is responsible for the hyperdipsic effect of total dietary AA restriction (DAR). Additionally, by using diets with vary-ing amounts of individual EAA under constant total AA supply, we demonstrate that restriction of threonine (Thr) or tryptophan (Trp) is mandatory and sufficient for the effects of DAR on hyperdip-sia and that liver-derived fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is required for this hyperdipsic effect. Strikingly, artificially introducing Thr de novo biosynthesis in hepatocytes reversed hyperdipsia during DAR. In summary, our results show that the DPD effects on hyperdipsia are induced by the deprivation of Thr and Trp, and in turn, via liver/hepatocyte-derived FGF21.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1469
Number of pages11
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2021


  • Amino acids
  • Dietary protein
  • Restriction
  • Water intake

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