Diet, lifestyle and gut microbiota composition among Malaysian women with gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study

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The study addressed a significant gap in the profiling and understanding of the gut microbiota’s influence on Malaysian Malay women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This prospective cohort study aimed to explore the intricate relationship between gut microbiota, dietary choices, and lifestyle factors among Malay women, both with and without GDM. The research specifically focused on participants during the second (T0) and third (T1) trimesters of pregnancy in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. In Part 1 of the study, a diverse pool of pregnant women at T0 was categorized into two groups: those diagnosed with GDM and those without GDM, with a total sample size of 105 individuals. The assessments encompassed demographic, clinical, lifestyle, and dietary factors at the T0 and T1 trimesters. Part 2 of the study delved into microbiome analysis, targeting a better understanding of the gut microbiota among the participants. Stool samples were randomly collected from 50% of the individuals in each group (GDM and non-GDM) at T0 and T1. The collected samples underwent processing, and 16s rRNA metagenomic analysis was employed to study the microbial composition. The results suggested an association between elevated body weight and glucose levels, poor sleep quality, lack of physical activity, greater intake of iron and meat, and reduced fruit consumption among women with GDM compared to non-GDM groups. The microbiome analysis revealed changes in microbial composition over time, with reduced diversity observed in the GDM group during the third trimester. The genera Lactiplantibacillus, Parvibacter, Prevotellaceae UCG001, and Vagococcus positively correlated with physical activity levels in GDM women in the second trimester. Similarly, the genus Victivallis exhibited a strong positive correlation with gravida and parity. On the contrary, the genus Bacteroides and Roseburia showed a negative correlation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in women without GDM in the third trimester. The study highlighted the multifaceted nature of GDM, involving a combination of lifestyle factors, dietary choices, and changes in gut microbiota composition. The findings emphasized the importance of considering these interconnected elements in understanding and managing gestational diabetes among Malaysian Malay women. Further exploration is essential to comprehend the mechanisms underlying this relationship and develop targeted interventions for effective GDM management.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6891
Number of pages15
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 22 Mar 2024

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