In response to recent trends in migration and remittances, many home-country governments have created new agencies that we call diaspora engagement institutions (DEI) intended to address migrant issues. In developing countries, DEI policies often direct migrant money and attention to funding and founding new businesses back home. In this paper, we ask whether and when those DEIs are effective. Grounding our explanation in social exchange and social identity theories, we propose that DEIs are more effective when they promote a stronger sense of home-country belonging and reciprocal giving among migrants. Using evidence from panel data analysis of 35 countries observed from 2001 to 2010, we find partial support for our predictions.