Diabetes is a negative risk factor for aortic aneurysm, but the underlying explanation for this phenomenon is unknown. We have previously demonstrated that cell division autoantigen 1 (CDA1), which enhances transforming growth factor-b signaling, is upregulated in diabetes. We hypothesized that CDA1 plays a key role in conferring the protective effect of diabetes against aortic aneurysms. Male wild-type, CDA1 knockout (KO), apolipoprotein E (ApoE) KO, and CDA1/ApoE double-KO (dKO) mice were rendered diabetic. Whereas aneurysms were not observed in diabetic ApoE KO and wild-type mice, 40% of diabetic dKO mice developed aortic aneurysms. These aneurysms were associated with attenuated aortic transforming growth factor-b signaling, reduced expression of various collagens, and increased aortic macrophage infiltration and matrix metalloproteinase 12 expression. In the well-characterized model of angiotensin II-induced aneurysm formation, concomitant diabetes reduced fatal aortic rupture and attenuated suprarenal aortic expansion, changes not seen in dKO mice. Furthermore, aortic CDA1 expression was downregulated ?70% within biopsies from human abdominal aortic aneurysms. The identification that diabetes is associated with upregulation of vascular CDA1 and that CDA1 deletion in diabetic mice promotes aneurysm formation provides evidence that CDA1 plays a role in diabetes to reduce susceptibility to aneurysm formation.