Developments in the detection of diabetic retinopathy: a state-of-the-art review of computer-aided diagnosis and machine learning methods

Ganeshsree Selvachandran, Shio Gai Quek, Raveendran Paramesran, Weiping Ding, Le Hoang Son

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


The exponential increase in the number of diabetics around the world has led to an equally large increase in the number of diabetic retinopathy (DR) cases which is one of the major complications caused by diabetes. Left unattended, DR worsens the vision and would lead to partial or complete blindness. As the number of diabetics continue to increase exponentially in the coming years, the number of qualified ophthalmologists need to increase in tandem in order to meet the demand for screening of the growing number of diabetic patients. This makes it pertinent to develop ways to automate the detection process of DR. A computer aided diagnosis system has the potential to significantly reduce the burden currently placed on the ophthalmologists. Hence, this review paper is presented with the aim of summarizing, classifying, and analyzing all the recent development on automated DR detection using fundus images from 2015 up to this date. Such work offers an unprecedentedly thorough review of all the recent works on DR, which will potentially increase the understanding of all the recent studies on automated DR detection, particularly on those that deploys machine learning algorithms. Firstly, in this paper, a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the methods that have been introduced in the detection of DR is presented, with a focus on machine learning models such as convolutional neural networks (CNN) and artificial neural networks (ANN) and various hybrid models. Each AI will then be classified according to its type (e.g. CNN, ANN, SVM), its specific task(s) in performing DR detection. In particular, the models that deploy CNN will be further analyzed and classified according to some important properties of the respective CNN architectures of each model. A total of 150 research articles related to the aforementioned areas that were published in the recent 5 years have been utilized in this review to provide a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in the detection of DR.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)915-964
Number of pages50
JournalArtificial Intelligence Review
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Computer-aided diagnosis
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Fuzzy logic
  • Fuzzy sets
  • Image processing
  • Machine learning
  • Retina
  • Retinopathy

Cite this