Developmental and adult phenotyping directly from mutant embryonic stem cells

Sophia HL George, Marina Gertsenstein, Kristina Vintersten, Ella Korets-Smith, John Murphy, Mary E Stevens, Jody J Haigh, Andras Nagy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

139 Citations (Scopus)


Tetraploid embryo complementation assay has shown that mouse ES cells alone are capable of supporting embryonic development and adult life of mice. Newly established F1 hybrid ES cells allow the production of ES cell-derived animals at a high enough efficiency to directly make ES cell-based genetics feasible. Here we report the establishment and characterization of 12 new F1 hybrid ES cell lines and the use of one of the best (G4) in a gain- and loss-of-function genetic study, where the in vivo phenotypes were assessed directly from ES cell-derived embryos. We found the generation of G4 ES cell-derived animals to be very efficient. Furthermore, even after two consecutive rounds of genetic modifications, the majority of transgenic lines retained the original potential of the parental lines; with 10-40% of chimeras producing ES cell-derived animals/embryos. Using these genetically altered ES cells, this success rate, in most cases, permitted the derivation of a sufficient number of mutants for initial phenotypic analyses only a few weeks after the establishment of the cell lines. Although the experimental design has to take into account a moderate level of uncontrolled damage on ES cell lines, our proof-of-principle experiment provides useful data to assist future designs harnessing the power of this technology to accelerate our understanding of gene function.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4455-4460
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2007
Externally publishedYes

Cite this