Development of “The Safe Psychiatric Ward Battery”

Maryam Vahidi, Hossein Namdar Areshtanab, Hossein Ebrahimi, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi

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3 Citations (Scopus)


This study reports the development process and psychometric testing of the safe environment in psychiatric wards instrument. In this mixed-methods study, the concept of a safe environment was explained with a qualitative study by performing semi-structured interviews with patients and staff and ward observation. Then, the items of the instrument were designed using qualitative data and a literature review. Content and construct validity, internal consistency, stability, and inter-rater agreement were evaluated. This study produced an instrument consisting of two sections. The first section was a scale (α =.920). Exploratory factor analysis of the scale identified two dimensions of “engagement” (α =.931) and “perception” of the physical environment (α =.760). The second section was a checklist with two dimensions, “accident-free living environment” and “staff empowerment.” The intra-class correlation coefficients for the scale and checklist were.912 and.809, respectively. This study suggests that this instrument is a valid and reliable tool to assess safety in psychiatric wards.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)375-383
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Nursing Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • environment
  • hospitals
  • inpatients
  • instrumentation
  • psychiatric
  • qualitative research
  • safety

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