Development of a module for the prevention of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-associated gastrointestinal adverse reactions in the elderly at a primary health center

Alyya Siddiqa Siregar, Retno Asti Werdhani, Purwantyastuti Ascobat, Nafrialdi Nafrialdi, Ari Fahrial Syam, Rudy Hidayat, Grace Wangge

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2 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: The prevention of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) adverse reactions should start from the primary health center (PHC), as the first gatekeeper in community health services. However, there is no specific module available for health care professionals (HCPs) in Indonesia for the prevention of adverse drug reactions (ADR) at PHCs. NSAID is commonly used for the elderly treated at PHC in Indonesia, even though the ADR risk is well-known. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop a module to be used in PHC for preventing NSAID-associated upper gastrointestinal (GI) ADRs in elderly patients treated for musculoskeletal diseases. METHODS: The module was developed based on inputs from focus group discussions (FGD) among government health officers, PHC representatives, clinical pharmacologists, internal medicine and community medicine clinicians, pharmacovigilance experts, and professional organizations. A pilot implementation was conducted to test its feasibility and its effect on the HCPs' knowledge. RESULTS: Capacity building of HCPs, development of intra-HCP cooperation, as well as standard operating procedure (SOP) for the prescription of NSAID constituted important components of the module. A pilot study of the module in two PHCs showed that it was applicable with some recommendations for improvement in duration, number of participants, room space, presentation, and use of credit points as compliments. The HCPs' knowledge was improved after following the module. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the module is feasible in PHC in Indonesia and useful in improving knowledge of HPC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-73
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • adverse drug reactions
  • elderly
  • health care professional
  • Indonesia
  • NSAIDs
  • primary health center

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