Development of a clinical pharmacy model within an Australian home nursing service using co-creation and participatory action research: The VI siting P harmacist (VIP) study

Rohan A. Elliott, Cik Yin Lee, Christine Beanland, Dianne P. Goeman, Neil Petrie, Barbara Petrie, Felicity Vise, June Gray

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To develop a collaborative, person-centred model of clinical pharmacy support for community nurses and their medication management clients. 

Design: Co-creation and participatory action research, based on reflection, data collection, interaction and feedback from participants and other stakeholders. 

Setting: A large, non-profit home nursing service in Melbourne, Australia. 

Participants: Older people referred to the home nursing service for medication management, their carers, community nurses, general practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists, a multidisciplinary stakeholder reference group (including consumer representation) and the project team. 

Data collection and analysis: Feedback and reflections from minutes, notes and transcripts from: project team meetings, clinical pharmacists' reflective diaries and interviews, meetings with community nurses, reference group meetings and interviews and focus groups with 27 older people, 18 carers, 53 nurses, 15 GPs and seven community pharmacists. 

Results: The model was based on best practice medication management standards and designed to address key medication management issues raised by stakeholders. Pharmacist roles included direct client care and indirect care. Direct care included home visits, medication reconciliation, medication review, medication regimen simplification, preparation of medication lists for clients and nurses, liaison and information sharing with prescribers and pharmacies and patient/carer education. Indirect care included providing medicines information and education for nurses and assisting with review and implementation of organisational medication policies and procedures. The model allowed nurses to refer directly to the pharmacist, enabling timely resolution of medication issues. Direct care was provided to 84 older people over a 15-month implementation period. Ongoing feedback and consultation, in line with participatory action research principles, informed the development and refinement of the model and identification of enablers and challenges. 

Conclusions: A collaborative, person-centred clinical pharmacy model that addressed the needs of clients, carers, nurses and other stakeholders was successfully developed. The model is likely to have applicability to home nursing services nationally and internationally.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere018722
Number of pages10
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2017


  • clinical pharmacy
  • co-creation and participatory action research
  • home nursing or home care
  • medication management
  • medication review
  • older people

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