Development and validation of a questionnaire (FASH - Functional Assessment Scale for Acute Hamstring Injuries): To measure the severity and impact of symptoms on function and sports ability in patients with acute hamstring injuries

Nikos Malliaropoulos, Vasileios Korakakis, Dimitris Christodoulou, Nat Padhiar, Debasish Pyne, Giannis Giakas, Tanja Nauck, Peter Malliaras, Heinz Lohrer

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19 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To develop a condition-specific patient-reported outcome measure, the Functional Assessment Scale for Acute Hamstring Injuries (FASH), de novo in three languages, following distinct and rigorous methodology for content generation, analysis and validation and to assess its psychometric properties. Background: To our knowledge, there is no patient-reported functional scale specific for acute hamstring injuries. 

Methods: The development of the scale followed specific guidelines, as well as de novo construction in three languages (Greek, English and German). Item generation was accomplished by selecting three different sources of items: literature review, focus group and key informant interviews. Content analysis was conducted by an expert committee. The 21 items selected as appropriate were tested through a structured content analytic method and item-content validity coefficient, and 10 were retained for the FASH. The validation and assessment of its psychometric properties followed theConsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) recommendations to ensure quality, in a convenience sample of 140 participants. 

Results: The face validity was adequate and tested by expert committees, authors and participants. Content validity was characterised as well addressed and conducted independently by experts and through specific content validation procedures. The dimensionality analysis indicated a one-factor solution explaining the 95.8% of total variance. Known group validity was demonstrated by significant differences between patients and controls (p<0.001). The FASH exhibited very good test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.9, p<0.001), internal consistency (α=0.98) and responsiveness (3.81 and 5.23 using baseline and pooled SD, respectively; standardised response mean (SRD)=4.68).

Conclusion: This study provides initial evidence for psychometric properties of the first scale assessing hamstring injuries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1607-1612
Number of pages6
JournalBritish Journal of Sports Medicine
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2014
Externally publishedYes

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