Development and validation of a new rating scale for perimenopausal depression - The Meno-D

Jayashri Kulkarni, Emorfia Gavrilidis, Abdul Rahman Hudaib, Caitlin Bleeker, Roisin Worsley, Caroline Gurvich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


The menopause transition is a time when women experience an increased risk for new onset depression, as well as relapse of depression. While there are overlapping symptoms between major depression and depression during menopause, differences suggest 'perimenopausal depression' may be a unique subtype of depression associated with characteristic symptoms. There is currently no validated scale designed to measure perimenopausal depression. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate the 'Meno-D', a self-reporting or clinician rated questionnaire, designed to rate the severity of symptoms of perimenopausal depression. The development phase of the Meno-D involved literature review, clinical observation, and focus groups. A 12-item questionnaire was developed and clinically reviewed for face validity for content. The Meno-D was administered to women experiencing symptoms of perimenopausal depression as part of a larger baseline assessment battery. Validation involved confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The development of the Meno-D resulted in 12 items. A total of 93 participants with perimenopausal depression were involved in the baseline assessments, 82 completed the Meno-D. Factor analysis identified five sub-scales of the Meno-D "somatic; cognitive; self; sleep; sexual" with high-internal consistency; discriminant validity and a good construct and convergent validity. The Meno-D provides a unique tool for clinicians and researchers to measure the presence of perimenopausal depression.

Original languageEnglish
Article number123
Number of pages9
JournalTranslational Psychiatry
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2018

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