Developing and validating the Malay version instrument to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding second-hand smoke in the workplace: a cross-sectional study in teaching hospital in Malaysia

Ikmal Rashiden, Nur Amani Natasha Ahmad Tajuddin, Anne Yee, Amer Siddiq Amer Nordin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


This research sought to develop and validate the “Workplace Second-hand Smoke: Perception on the SHS Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice” (WSHS: PAP) instrument, which targets non-smoking employees. A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and June 2018 to validate WSHS: PAP among non-smoking employees at Universiti Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). Experts were invited to validate the instrument. Then, for exploratory factor analysis, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 336 UMMC non-smoking employees who were recruited by convenience sampling. A total of 28 items on KAP, rated on five-point Likert scales, underwent exploratory factor analysis and were tested for internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha). Participants were approached after 2 weeks for the assessment of test-retest reliability. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.828, 0.743 and 0.837, respectively, for the domains of perception of the knowledge, attitude and practice, indicating acceptable internal consistency (above 0.7). Exploratory factor analysis identified a one-factor solution for each of the KAP domains. Therefore, the Malay version of the WSHS: PAP instrument demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties for the assessment of non-smoking employees in workplaces with a smoking ban.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)44557-44564
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number32
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Factor analysis
  • KAP scale
  • Passive smoking
  • Reliability
  • Smoke-free policy
  • Workplace second-hand smoke, Validity study

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