Developing a framework for objective structured clinical examinations using the nominal group technique

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Abstract

Objective. To use the nominal group technique to develop a framework to improve existing and develop new objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) within a four-year bachelor of pharmacy course. 

Design. Using the nominal group technique, a unique method of group interview that combines qualitative and quantitative data collection, focus groups were conducted with faculty members, practicing pharmacists, and undergraduate pharmacy students. Five draft OSCEs frameworks were suggested and participants were asked to generate new framework ideas. 

Assessment. Two focus groups (n=9 and n=7) generated nine extra frameworks. Two of these frameworks, one from each focus group, ranked highest (mean scores of 4.4 and 4.1 on a 5-point scale) and were similar in nature. The project team used these two frameworks to produce the final framework, which includes an OSCE in every year of the course, earlier implementation of teaching OSCEs, and the use of independent simulated patients who are not examiners. 

Conclusions. The new OSCE framework provides a consistent structure from course entry to exit and ensures graduates meet internship requirements.

Original languageEnglish
Article number158
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Volume80
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Keywords

  • Framework
  • Nominal group technique (NGT)
  • Objective structured clinical exam (OSCE)
  • Pharmacy
  • Students

Cite this

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title = "Developing a framework for objective structured clinical examinations using the nominal group technique",
abstract = "Objective. To use the nominal group technique to develop a framework to improve existing and develop new objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) within a four-year bachelor of pharmacy course. Design. Using the nominal group technique, a unique method of group interview that combines qualitative and quantitative data collection, focus groups were conducted with faculty members, practicing pharmacists, and undergraduate pharmacy students. Five draft OSCEs frameworks were suggested and participants were asked to generate new framework ideas. Assessment. Two focus groups (n=9 and n=7) generated nine extra frameworks. Two of these frameworks, one from each focus group, ranked highest (mean scores of 4.4 and 4.1 on a 5-point scale) and were similar in nature. The project team used these two frameworks to produce the final framework, which includes an OSCE in every year of the course, earlier implementation of teaching OSCEs, and the use of independent simulated patients who are not examiners. Conclusions. The new OSCE framework provides a consistent structure from course entry to exit and ensures graduates meet internship requirements.",
keywords = "Framework, Nominal group technique (NGT), Objective structured clinical exam (OSCE), Pharmacy, Students",
author = "Safeera Hussainy and Crum, {Matthew Frederick} and Paul White and Ian Larson and Daniel Malone and David Manallack and Joseph Nicolazzo and Jennifer McDowell and Angelina Lim and Carl Kirkpatrick",
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language = "English",
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journal = "American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education",
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T1 - Developing a framework for objective structured clinical examinations using the nominal group technique

AU - Hussainy, Safeera

AU - Crum, Matthew Frederick

AU - White, Paul

AU - Larson, Ian

AU - Malone, Daniel

AU - Manallack, David

AU - Nicolazzo, Joseph

AU - McDowell, Jennifer

AU - Lim, Angelina

AU - Kirkpatrick, Carl

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Objective. To use the nominal group technique to develop a framework to improve existing and develop new objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) within a four-year bachelor of pharmacy course. Design. Using the nominal group technique, a unique method of group interview that combines qualitative and quantitative data collection, focus groups were conducted with faculty members, practicing pharmacists, and undergraduate pharmacy students. Five draft OSCEs frameworks were suggested and participants were asked to generate new framework ideas. Assessment. Two focus groups (n=9 and n=7) generated nine extra frameworks. Two of these frameworks, one from each focus group, ranked highest (mean scores of 4.4 and 4.1 on a 5-point scale) and were similar in nature. The project team used these two frameworks to produce the final framework, which includes an OSCE in every year of the course, earlier implementation of teaching OSCEs, and the use of independent simulated patients who are not examiners. Conclusions. The new OSCE framework provides a consistent structure from course entry to exit and ensures graduates meet internship requirements.

AB - Objective. To use the nominal group technique to develop a framework to improve existing and develop new objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) within a four-year bachelor of pharmacy course. Design. Using the nominal group technique, a unique method of group interview that combines qualitative and quantitative data collection, focus groups were conducted with faculty members, practicing pharmacists, and undergraduate pharmacy students. Five draft OSCEs frameworks were suggested and participants were asked to generate new framework ideas. Assessment. Two focus groups (n=9 and n=7) generated nine extra frameworks. Two of these frameworks, one from each focus group, ranked highest (mean scores of 4.4 and 4.1 on a 5-point scale) and were similar in nature. The project team used these two frameworks to produce the final framework, which includes an OSCE in every year of the course, earlier implementation of teaching OSCEs, and the use of independent simulated patients who are not examiners. Conclusions. The new OSCE framework provides a consistent structure from course entry to exit and ensures graduates meet internship requirements.

KW - Framework

KW - Nominal group technique (NGT)

KW - Objective structured clinical exam (OSCE)

KW - Pharmacy

KW - Students

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