Detection of snake venom in post-antivenom samples by dissociation treatment followed by Enzyme Immunoassay

Kalana P. Maduwage, Margaret A. O’Leary, Anjana Silva, Geoffrey K. Isbister

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Venom detection is crucial for confirmation of envenomation and snake type in snake-bite patients. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is used to detect venom, but antivenom in samples prevents venom detection. We aimed to detect snake venom in post-antivenom samples after dissociating venom-antivenom complexes with glycine-HCl (pH 2.2) and heating for 30 min at 950 C. Serum samples underwent dissociation treatment and then Russell’s viper venom or Australian elapid venom measured by EIA. In confirmed Russell’s viper bites with venom detected pre-antivenom (positive controls), no venom was detected in untreated post-antivenom samples, but was after dissociation treatment. In 104 non-envenomed patients (negative controls), no venom was detected after dissociation treatment. In suspected Russell’s viper bites, ten patients with no pre-antivenom samples had venom detected in post-antivenom samples after dissociation treatment. In 20 patients with no venom detected pre-antivenom, 13 had venom detected post-antivenom after dissociation treatment. In another 85 suspected Russell’s viper bites with no venom detected pre-antivenom, 50 had venom detected after dissociation treatment. Dissociation treatment was also successful for Australian snake envenomation including taipan, mulga, tiger snake and brown snake. Snake venom can be detected by EIA in post-antivenom samples after dissociation treatment allowing confirmation of diagnosis of envenomation post-antivenom.
Original languageEnglish
Article number130
Number of pages9
JournalToxins
Volume8
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2016

Keywords

  • Antivenom
  • Dissociation
  • Enzyme immunoassay
  • Snakebite
  • Venom
  • Venom detection

Cite this