BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nucleophosmin gene mutations are frequently reported in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with normal karyotype, which is also frequently associated with internal tandem duplication mutations in the FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 gene. We sought to detect the nucleophosmin and FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations among Iranian patients with AML and to assess the relationship between these mutations and the subtypes of the disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study of patients referred during 2007 through 2009. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bone marrow and peripheral blood samples of 131 AML patients were randomly collected at the time of diagnosis and prior to treatment and the DNA extracted. After amplifying the nucleophosmin and FLT3 gene regions, positive cases were screened by conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis and agarose gel electrophoresis techniques. RESULTS: Of 131 patients, 23 (17.5%) (0.95% CI=0.107-0.244) had nucleophosmin gene mutations. The highest frequency of such mutations was found among the subtypes of M4 (30.4%), M3 (21.7%) and M5 (17.4%). There was a high frequency of these mutations in the M3 subtype as well as a high frequency of allele D in all subtypes. Also, 21 (16.0%) samples (0.95% CI=0.092-0.229) had FLT3/ITD mutation, of which 8 samples had mutant nucleophosmin (8 of 23, 35%), and another 13 samples had wild-type nucleophosmin gene (13 of 108, 12%). There was a high degree of association between the occurrence of nucleophosmin and FLT3/ITD mutations (P=.012). CONCLUSION: Our data showed a high frequency of NPM1 mutations in the monocytic subtypes of AML, as well as a high degree of association between the occurrence of NPM1 and FLT3/ITD mutations.