The development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) resulting from widespread antibiotic usage is occurring at an alarming pace, much faster than our understanding of the mechanisms behind resistance. Knowledge about resistance-related phenotypic and genotypic changes is critical for the development of new drugs. Here, we identify changes in the chemical composition of Staphylococcus aureus associated with the development of resistance to last resort drugs, vancomycin and daptomycin, using a novel, single cell, nanoscale technique, atomic force microscopy-infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR), combined with chemometric analysis. We utilized paired clinical isolates, with the parent (susceptible) strain isolated prior to treatment and the daughter (resistant) strain obtained from the same patient after drug admission and clinical failure. We observed an increase in the amount of nonintracellular carbohydrates, indicating thickening or changes in the packing of the cell wall, as well as changes in the phospholipid content in relation to vancomycin resistance and daptomycin nonsusceptibility, respectively.