Visualizing energy consumption is widely considered an important way to motivate end-users to conserve energy. Designing effective visualizations, however, is a non-trivial software design challenge. In particular, there are no clear criteria for designing visualizations of energy consumption for end-users. This paper presents systematic literature review findings from a total of 22 primary studies selected after applying quality and relevance filters. The results were synthesized using Grounded Theory's open coding and constant comparison procedures and led to the emergence of design criteria for visualization as the central theme across all primary studies. The key categories comprising this central theme include: (a) functional criteria, which include information displayed in the visualization, modes of visualization, and visualization techniques, and (b) non-functional criteria, which include hardware and software considerations such as integrality, extensibility and portability. Together, these criteria provide clear guidelines based on research evidence for software engineers and researchers designing visualizations of energy consumption for end-users.
- Grounded Theory