Depressive symptoms and associated factors among Iranian women at midlife: a community-based, cross-sectional study

Marzieh Azizi, Ensieh Fooladi, Robin J. Bell, Fourozan Elyasi, Maryam Masoumi, Susan R. Davis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Little is known of depressive symptoms in Iranian women at midlife. This population-based study was undertaken to document the prevalence of, and factors associated with, depressive symptoms using validated questionnaires. METHODS: A total of 1,520 community-dwelling women, aged 40 to 64 years, residing in Sari, Northern Iran, were recruited, using multistage cluster sampling, to this cross-sectional study, between October 2016 and April 2017. Participants completed the Menopause Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the World Health Organization Well-being Index. RESULTS: Participants' mean age was 49.1 (7.0) years and 88.7% were married. Overall, 167 (11%) women had moderate-severe depressive symptoms, 837 (55.1%) had low psychological well-being, and 172 (11.3%) reported taking psychotropic medication in the prior month. Factors independently associated with moderate-severe depressive symptoms included moderate-severe vasomotor symptoms (VMS) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.6, 95% CI, 1.5-4.6; P = 0.001), age 60 years or older (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI, 1.1-3.5; P = 0.03), body mass index 30 to 39 kg/m (AOR = 1.8, 95% CI, 1.0-3.1; P = 0.04), and housing insecurity (AOR = 5.6, 95% CI, 3.7-8.3; P < 0.001). Education beyond high school was associated with a lower risk (AOR = 0.5, 95% CI, 0.3-0.9; P = 0.04). Women reporting low marital satisfaction (19.2% of married women) were more likely than women who were very satisfied to have moderate-severe depressive symptoms (AOR = 27.9, 95% CI, 10.5-74.2; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Marital relationship dissatisfaction, reported by one in five women, was strongly associated with moderate-severe depressive symptoms in women at midlife in Iran, in addition to moderate-severe VMS, housing insecurity, obesity, and older age.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages8
JournalMenopause
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Jul 2019

Keywords

  • depressive symptoms
  • general well-being
  • marital dissatisfaction
  • menopause
  • vasomotor symptoms

Cite this

@article{633ab78757e147eaa8c39dd40728a3fe,
title = "Depressive symptoms and associated factors among Iranian women at midlife: a community-based, cross-sectional study",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE: Little is known of depressive symptoms in Iranian women at midlife. This population-based study was undertaken to document the prevalence of, and factors associated with, depressive symptoms using validated questionnaires. METHODS: A total of 1,520 community-dwelling women, aged 40 to 64 years, residing in Sari, Northern Iran, were recruited, using multistage cluster sampling, to this cross-sectional study, between October 2016 and April 2017. Participants completed the Menopause Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the World Health Organization Well-being Index. RESULTS: Participants' mean age was 49.1 (7.0) years and 88.7{\%} were married. Overall, 167 (11{\%}) women had moderate-severe depressive symptoms, 837 (55.1{\%}) had low psychological well-being, and 172 (11.3{\%}) reported taking psychotropic medication in the prior month. Factors independently associated with moderate-severe depressive symptoms included moderate-severe vasomotor symptoms (VMS) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.6, 95{\%} CI, 1.5-4.6; P = 0.001), age 60 years or older (AOR = 1.9, 95{\%} CI, 1.1-3.5; P = 0.03), body mass index 30 to 39 kg/m (AOR = 1.8, 95{\%} CI, 1.0-3.1; P = 0.04), and housing insecurity (AOR = 5.6, 95{\%} CI, 3.7-8.3; P < 0.001). Education beyond high school was associated with a lower risk (AOR = 0.5, 95{\%} CI, 0.3-0.9; P = 0.04). Women reporting low marital satisfaction (19.2{\%} of married women) were more likely than women who were very satisfied to have moderate-severe depressive symptoms (AOR = 27.9, 95{\%} CI, 10.5-74.2; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Marital relationship dissatisfaction, reported by one in five women, was strongly associated with moderate-severe depressive symptoms in women at midlife in Iran, in addition to moderate-severe VMS, housing insecurity, obesity, and older age.",
keywords = "depressive symptoms, general well-being, marital dissatisfaction, menopause, vasomotor symptoms",
author = "Marzieh Azizi and Ensieh Fooladi and Bell, {Robin J.} and Fourozan Elyasi and Maryam Masoumi and Davis, {Susan R.}",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1097/GME.0000000000001374",
language = "English",
journal = "Menopause",
issn = "1072-3714",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams & Wilkins",

}

Depressive symptoms and associated factors among Iranian women at midlife : a community-based, cross-sectional study. / Azizi, Marzieh; Fooladi, Ensieh; Bell, Robin J.; Elyasi, Fourozan; Masoumi, Maryam; Davis, Susan R.

In: Menopause, 01.07.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Depressive symptoms and associated factors among Iranian women at midlife

T2 - a community-based, cross-sectional study

AU - Azizi, Marzieh

AU - Fooladi, Ensieh

AU - Bell, Robin J.

AU - Elyasi, Fourozan

AU - Masoumi, Maryam

AU - Davis, Susan R.

PY - 2019/7/1

Y1 - 2019/7/1

N2 - OBJECTIVE: Little is known of depressive symptoms in Iranian women at midlife. This population-based study was undertaken to document the prevalence of, and factors associated with, depressive symptoms using validated questionnaires. METHODS: A total of 1,520 community-dwelling women, aged 40 to 64 years, residing in Sari, Northern Iran, were recruited, using multistage cluster sampling, to this cross-sectional study, between October 2016 and April 2017. Participants completed the Menopause Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the World Health Organization Well-being Index. RESULTS: Participants' mean age was 49.1 (7.0) years and 88.7% were married. Overall, 167 (11%) women had moderate-severe depressive symptoms, 837 (55.1%) had low psychological well-being, and 172 (11.3%) reported taking psychotropic medication in the prior month. Factors independently associated with moderate-severe depressive symptoms included moderate-severe vasomotor symptoms (VMS) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.6, 95% CI, 1.5-4.6; P = 0.001), age 60 years or older (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI, 1.1-3.5; P = 0.03), body mass index 30 to 39 kg/m (AOR = 1.8, 95% CI, 1.0-3.1; P = 0.04), and housing insecurity (AOR = 5.6, 95% CI, 3.7-8.3; P < 0.001). Education beyond high school was associated with a lower risk (AOR = 0.5, 95% CI, 0.3-0.9; P = 0.04). Women reporting low marital satisfaction (19.2% of married women) were more likely than women who were very satisfied to have moderate-severe depressive symptoms (AOR = 27.9, 95% CI, 10.5-74.2; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Marital relationship dissatisfaction, reported by one in five women, was strongly associated with moderate-severe depressive symptoms in women at midlife in Iran, in addition to moderate-severe VMS, housing insecurity, obesity, and older age.

AB - OBJECTIVE: Little is known of depressive symptoms in Iranian women at midlife. This population-based study was undertaken to document the prevalence of, and factors associated with, depressive symptoms using validated questionnaires. METHODS: A total of 1,520 community-dwelling women, aged 40 to 64 years, residing in Sari, Northern Iran, were recruited, using multistage cluster sampling, to this cross-sectional study, between October 2016 and April 2017. Participants completed the Menopause Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the World Health Organization Well-being Index. RESULTS: Participants' mean age was 49.1 (7.0) years and 88.7% were married. Overall, 167 (11%) women had moderate-severe depressive symptoms, 837 (55.1%) had low psychological well-being, and 172 (11.3%) reported taking psychotropic medication in the prior month. Factors independently associated with moderate-severe depressive symptoms included moderate-severe vasomotor symptoms (VMS) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.6, 95% CI, 1.5-4.6; P = 0.001), age 60 years or older (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI, 1.1-3.5; P = 0.03), body mass index 30 to 39 kg/m (AOR = 1.8, 95% CI, 1.0-3.1; P = 0.04), and housing insecurity (AOR = 5.6, 95% CI, 3.7-8.3; P < 0.001). Education beyond high school was associated with a lower risk (AOR = 0.5, 95% CI, 0.3-0.9; P = 0.04). Women reporting low marital satisfaction (19.2% of married women) were more likely than women who were very satisfied to have moderate-severe depressive symptoms (AOR = 27.9, 95% CI, 10.5-74.2; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Marital relationship dissatisfaction, reported by one in five women, was strongly associated with moderate-severe depressive symptoms in women at midlife in Iran, in addition to moderate-severe VMS, housing insecurity, obesity, and older age.

KW - depressive symptoms

KW - general well-being

KW - marital dissatisfaction

KW - menopause

KW - vasomotor symptoms

U2 - 10.1097/GME.0000000000001374

DO - 10.1097/GME.0000000000001374

M3 - Article

JO - Menopause

JF - Menopause

SN - 1072-3714

ER -