Depressive symptoms and age-related macular degeneration in older people: The cardiovascular health study

Cong Sun, Gabriella Tikellis, Ronald Klein, David C. Steffens, Emily K.Marino Larsen, Tien Y. Wong

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Purpose: To examine the association between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and depressive symptoms. Methods: Population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 2,194 persons aged 69-97 years were included in the current analyses. During the 1997-1998 examination, retinal photography from one randomly selected eye was graded for presence of early and late AMD using a modified Wisconsin AMD by Grading System. Depressive symptoms were assessed via a modified version of the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale annually from 1989 through 1997-1998. Depressive symptoms were defined as a CES-D score of > 9 (top quartile of CES-D score) at the 1997-1998 examination. Results: There were 338 (15.6%) individuals with early AMD and 29 (1.3%) with late AMD. Among them, 368 (16.8%) persons had depressive symptoms at the 1997-1998 examination. Depressive symptoms were not associated with early AMD (multivariable adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.97; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.69-1.36) or late AMD (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.38-3.46). Including persons using anti-depressive medications did not alter these associations (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.74-1.32 for early AMD and OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.35-2.67 for late AMD). There was no association in multinomial logistic regression models of increasing quartiles of the CES-D scores with early or late AMD status. Conclusions: Our study did not find an association between early AMD and depressive symptoms in older people.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)127-133
Number of pages7
JournalOphthalmic Epidemiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Age-related macular degeneration
  • Depressive symptoms

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