Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21): Psychometric analysis across four racial groups

Peter J. Norton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

453 Citations (Scopus)


Growing cross-cultural awareness has led researchers to examine frequently used research instruments and assessment tools in racially diverse populations. The present study was conducted to assess the psychometric characteristics of the 21-item version of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS-21) among different racial groups. The DASS-21 was chosen because it appears to be a reliable and easy to administer measure, ideal for both clinical and research purposes. Results suggest that the internal consistency, and convergent and divergent validity of the DASS-21 are similar across racial groups. Multigroup CFA, however, indicated that item loadings were invariant, while scale covariances were not invariant. This suggests that, although the items may load similarly on the depression, anxiety and stress constructs, these constructs may be differentially inter-related across groups. Implications for application in clinical practice are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)253-265
Number of pages13
JournalAnxiety, Stress and Coping
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Anxiety
  • Cross-cultural
  • Depression
  • Psychometric
  • Stress

Cite this