Delivery of positive end-expiratory pressure to preterm lambs using common resuscitation devices

Marta Thio, Jennifer A. Dawson, Kelly J. Crossley, Timothy J. Moss, Charles C. Roehr, Graeme R. Polglase, Peter G. Davis, Stuart B. Hooper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Background: In neonatal resuscitation, a ventilation device providing positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is recommended. There is limited information about PEEP delivery in vivo, using different models of self-inflating bag (SIB) at different inflation rates and PEEP settings. Methods: We compared PEEP delivery to intubated preterm lambs using four commonly available models of paired SIBs and PEEP valves, with a T-piece, with gas flow of 8 L/min. Peak inspiratory pressure inflations of 30 cmH2O, combined with set PEEP of 5, 7 and 10 cmH2O, were delivered at rates of 20, 40 and 60/min. These combinations were repeated without gas flow. We measured mean PEEP, maximum and minimum PEEP, and its difference (PEEP reduction). Results: A total of 3288 inflations were analysed. The mean PEEP delivered by all SIBs was lower than set PEEP (P<0.001), although some differences were <0.5 cmH2O. In 55% of combinations, the presence of gas flow resulted in increased PEEP delivery (range difference 0.3-2 cmH2O). The mean PEEP was closer to set PEEP with faster inflation rates and higher set PEEPs. The mean (SD) PEEP reduction was 3.9 (1.6), 8.2 (1.8), 2 (0.6) and 1.1 (0.6) cmH2O with the four SIBs, whereas it was 0.5 (0.2) cmH2O with the T-piece. Conclusions: PEEP delivery with SIBs depends on the set PEEP, inflation rate, device model and gas flow. At recommended inflation rates of 60/min, some devices can deliver PEEP close to the set level, although the reduction in PEEP makes some SIBs potentially less effective for lung recruitment than a T-piece.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)F83-F88
Number of pages6
JournalArchives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Volume104
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

Keywords

  • low resource setting
  • neonatal resuscitation
  • PEEP delivery
  • self-inflating bag
  • T-piece

Cite this

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title = "Delivery of positive end-expiratory pressure to preterm lambs using common resuscitation devices",
abstract = "Background: In neonatal resuscitation, a ventilation device providing positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is recommended. There is limited information about PEEP delivery in vivo, using different models of self-inflating bag (SIB) at different inflation rates and PEEP settings. Methods: We compared PEEP delivery to intubated preterm lambs using four commonly available models of paired SIBs and PEEP valves, with a T-piece, with gas flow of 8 L/min. Peak inspiratory pressure inflations of 30 cmH2O, combined with set PEEP of 5, 7 and 10 cmH2O, were delivered at rates of 20, 40 and 60/min. These combinations were repeated without gas flow. We measured mean PEEP, maximum and minimum PEEP, and its difference (PEEP reduction). Results: A total of 3288 inflations were analysed. The mean PEEP delivered by all SIBs was lower than set PEEP (P<0.001), although some differences were <0.5 cmH2O. In 55{\%} of combinations, the presence of gas flow resulted in increased PEEP delivery (range difference 0.3-2 cmH2O). The mean PEEP was closer to set PEEP with faster inflation rates and higher set PEEPs. The mean (SD) PEEP reduction was 3.9 (1.6), 8.2 (1.8), 2 (0.6) and 1.1 (0.6) cmH2O with the four SIBs, whereas it was 0.5 (0.2) cmH2O with the T-piece. Conclusions: PEEP delivery with SIBs depends on the set PEEP, inflation rate, device model and gas flow. At recommended inflation rates of 60/min, some devices can deliver PEEP close to the set level, although the reduction in PEEP makes some SIBs potentially less effective for lung recruitment than a T-piece.",
keywords = "low resource setting, neonatal resuscitation, PEEP delivery, self-inflating bag, T-piece",
author = "Marta Thio and Dawson, {Jennifer A.} and Crossley, {Kelly J.} and Moss, {Timothy J.} and Roehr, {Charles C.} and Polglase, {Graeme R.} and Davis, {Peter G.} and Hooper, {Stuart B.}",
year = "2019",
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language = "English",
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journal = "Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition",
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Delivery of positive end-expiratory pressure to preterm lambs using common resuscitation devices. / Thio, Marta; Dawson, Jennifer A.; Crossley, Kelly J.; Moss, Timothy J.; Roehr, Charles C.; Polglase, Graeme R.; Davis, Peter G.; Hooper, Stuart B.

In: Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition, Vol. 104, No. 1, 01.01.2019, p. F83-F88.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Delivery of positive end-expiratory pressure to preterm lambs using common resuscitation devices

AU - Thio, Marta

AU - Dawson, Jennifer A.

AU - Crossley, Kelly J.

AU - Moss, Timothy J.

AU - Roehr, Charles C.

AU - Polglase, Graeme R.

AU - Davis, Peter G.

AU - Hooper, Stuart B.

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Background: In neonatal resuscitation, a ventilation device providing positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is recommended. There is limited information about PEEP delivery in vivo, using different models of self-inflating bag (SIB) at different inflation rates and PEEP settings. Methods: We compared PEEP delivery to intubated preterm lambs using four commonly available models of paired SIBs and PEEP valves, with a T-piece, with gas flow of 8 L/min. Peak inspiratory pressure inflations of 30 cmH2O, combined with set PEEP of 5, 7 and 10 cmH2O, were delivered at rates of 20, 40 and 60/min. These combinations were repeated without gas flow. We measured mean PEEP, maximum and minimum PEEP, and its difference (PEEP reduction). Results: A total of 3288 inflations were analysed. The mean PEEP delivered by all SIBs was lower than set PEEP (P<0.001), although some differences were <0.5 cmH2O. In 55% of combinations, the presence of gas flow resulted in increased PEEP delivery (range difference 0.3-2 cmH2O). The mean PEEP was closer to set PEEP with faster inflation rates and higher set PEEPs. The mean (SD) PEEP reduction was 3.9 (1.6), 8.2 (1.8), 2 (0.6) and 1.1 (0.6) cmH2O with the four SIBs, whereas it was 0.5 (0.2) cmH2O with the T-piece. Conclusions: PEEP delivery with SIBs depends on the set PEEP, inflation rate, device model and gas flow. At recommended inflation rates of 60/min, some devices can deliver PEEP close to the set level, although the reduction in PEEP makes some SIBs potentially less effective for lung recruitment than a T-piece.

AB - Background: In neonatal resuscitation, a ventilation device providing positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is recommended. There is limited information about PEEP delivery in vivo, using different models of self-inflating bag (SIB) at different inflation rates and PEEP settings. Methods: We compared PEEP delivery to intubated preterm lambs using four commonly available models of paired SIBs and PEEP valves, with a T-piece, with gas flow of 8 L/min. Peak inspiratory pressure inflations of 30 cmH2O, combined with set PEEP of 5, 7 and 10 cmH2O, were delivered at rates of 20, 40 and 60/min. These combinations were repeated without gas flow. We measured mean PEEP, maximum and minimum PEEP, and its difference (PEEP reduction). Results: A total of 3288 inflations were analysed. The mean PEEP delivered by all SIBs was lower than set PEEP (P<0.001), although some differences were <0.5 cmH2O. In 55% of combinations, the presence of gas flow resulted in increased PEEP delivery (range difference 0.3-2 cmH2O). The mean PEEP was closer to set PEEP with faster inflation rates and higher set PEEPs. The mean (SD) PEEP reduction was 3.9 (1.6), 8.2 (1.8), 2 (0.6) and 1.1 (0.6) cmH2O with the four SIBs, whereas it was 0.5 (0.2) cmH2O with the T-piece. Conclusions: PEEP delivery with SIBs depends on the set PEEP, inflation rate, device model and gas flow. At recommended inflation rates of 60/min, some devices can deliver PEEP close to the set level, although the reduction in PEEP makes some SIBs potentially less effective for lung recruitment than a T-piece.

KW - low resource setting

KW - neonatal resuscitation

KW - PEEP delivery

KW - self-inflating bag

KW - T-piece

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U2 - 10.1136/archdischild-2017-314064

DO - 10.1136/archdischild-2017-314064

M3 - Article

VL - 104

SP - F83-F88

JO - Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition

JF - Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition

SN - 1359-2998

IS - 1

ER -