Small oligomeric beta amyloid (Abeta(1-42)) injected 45 min prior to single-trial bead discrimination training resulted in impaired learning in day-old chickens. A new experimental protocol was used where the injections of drugs were at times around the time of injection of Abeta. It was found that the Na(+) levels of the saline used to dissolve Abeta affected cognitive impairment. Na(+) levels above the normal plasma value (140 mM) reduced Abeta-induced learning deficits whereas levels below increased sensitivity to Abeta. The new protocol was also used to examine the ability of certain noradrenergic adrenoceptor antagonist and agonists, insulin, glucose and minocycline to reduce learning disruption caused by Abeta. The drugs (made up in 154 mM sodium chloride) were injected before, at the same time or after the injection of Abeta and although all drugs prevented Abeta-induced disruption of learning when given in the same injection as Abeta, some injected before could prevent Abeta disrupting learning, whereas others could rescue learning ability when given after Abeta injection. These results are interpreted in the light of possible actions of noradrenaline on microglia and various processes: astrocytic metabolism, cerebral microcirculation, and removal of Abeta away from the site of injection. The possible importance of hypernatremia and hyponatremia in the incidence of Alzheimer s disease is discussed.
|Pages (from-to)||62 - 71|
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - 2013|